Declaração de Tshwane (IBAS)
Versão original em inglês
India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum – Fifth Summit of Heads of State and Government – 18 October 2011 – Tshwane Declaration
The President of the Republic of South Africa, H.E. Mr. Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma, the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, H.E. Dr. Manmohan Singh, and the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, H.E. Ms. Dilma Rousseff (hereinafter referred to as “the Leaders”) met at the Presidential Guest House, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, on 18 October 2011 for the 5th Summit of Heads of State and Government of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum.
1. The Leaders noted that the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum brings together three large pluralistic, multi-cultural and multi-racial societies from three continents, i.e. Asia, South America and Africa, as a purely South-South grouping of like-minded countries committed to inclusive sustainable development, in pursuit of well-being for their peoples. The leaders underscored the importance of the principles, norms and values underpinning the IBSA Dialogue Forum, i.e. participatory democracy, respect for human rights, and the Rule of Law.
2. This Summit took place at a critical time globally, when the world economy is faced with serious challenges and where democracy is being sought after in areas such as the Middle East and North Africa. The Leaders highlighted that the basic pillar of IBSA is the shared vision of the three countries that democracy and development are mutually reinforcing and key to sustainable peace and stability. The Leaders posited that the entrenched democratic values shared by the three countries to the good of their peoples and are willing to share, if requested, the democratic and inclusive development model of their societies with countries in transition to democracy.
3. The Leaders acknowledged the importance of the IBSA Dialogue Forum as an instrument to promote coordination on global issues, pertinently during the historic occasion of 2011 when all IBSA Member States serve as non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
4. Recalling the Declarations and Communiqués issued during the previous Summits, they took the opportunity to deliberate upon the topics hereunder.
Coordination in Multilateral organisations
5. The leaders recalled their joint collaboration in the UNSC and other relevant international fora such as the UN Specialised Agencies and groupings such as the G20, G24, WTO, WIPO, BASIC, BRICS, and G77 + China.
Global Governance Reform
6. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to increase the participation of developing countries in the decision-making bodies of multilateral institutions. They underscored the need for urgent reform of the United Nations (UN) to render it more democratic and consistent with the current geopolitical reality. They particularly emphasized that no reform of the United Nations will be complete without a reform of the UN Security Council (UNSC), including an expansion in both the permanent and nonpermanent categories of its membership, with increased participation of developing countries in both. Such reform is of the utmost importance for the UNSC to reflect the representativeness and legitimacy it needs to face contemporary challenges.
7. They reiterated that the current international system has to be more reflective of the needs and priorities of developing countries. IBSA, as like-minded countries, will continue to strive to contribute to a new world order whose political, economic and financial architecture is more inclusive, representative and legitimate.
8. They underscored the need for urgent reform of the UN Security Council, including an expansion in both permanent and non-permanent categories of its membership, with increased participation of developing countries in both. They discussed the G4 initiative of a draft resolution on expansion of the Security Council in both categories and improvement of its working methods. The initiative has been supported by a wide coalition of Member States, from all regional groups of the United Nations. Therefore, they expressed the view that such strong support should be considered as the basis for further discussion in the ongoing intergovernmental negotiations on the UNSC reform. The need for greater progress in the intergovernmental negotiations was identified as critical to ensure the required impetus to achieve change. They committed themselves to maintain close cooperation and coordination in order to achieve tangible results during the 66th session of the General Assembly.
9. They expressed their satisfaction with the positive role that the three IBSA countries have been playing in the maintenance of international peace and security during their current tenure on the Security Council. They committed themselves to continued close cooperation in order to bring their perspectives into the work and decision-making processes of the UNSC. They reaffirmed their willingness and capacity to take on major responsibilities in the maintenance of international peace and security. In this context, the IBSA countries declared support for each other’s aspirations for permanent seats in a reformed United Nations Security Council.
10. The leaders encouraged coalitions of developing countries, devoted to the process of UNSC reform to actively participate in expediting the ongoing intergovernmental negotiations. The Leaders recalled the critical role of the regional organizations in resolving conflicts. The urged the UNSC to work closely with them.
11. The Leaders committed themselves to continue to work together in relevant multilateral fora to enhance macro-economic policy coordination for sustainable recovery and continued growth. As members of the G20, IBSA Countries reaffirmed their support for the Group as the premier forum for international economic cooperation. The Leaders stressed the importance of sustaining long-term capital flows to developing countries to stimulate investment, especially in infrastructure and called upon Multilateral Development Banks and Regional Development Banks to mobilise more resources and to find ways to expand their lending capacity to developing countries.
12. The Leaders emphasised the importance of the G20 development agenda, with its focus on the contribution to sustainable growth in developing countries, especially in low income countries. They committed themselves to work together for the continued mainstreaming of the development agenda of the G20 in the future, with the emphasis on infrastructure, food security and trade.
13. The Leaders called for the early implementation of the targets for the reform of the International Monetary Fund relating to the mandate, representation, scope, governance, responsibility, responsiveness and development orientation of the Fund, in order to ensure that the Fund is democratic, responsive and accountable. The Leaders reiterated that the governing structure of the Fund should reflect the changed realities of the global economy in the 21st Century, through the increased voice and representation of emerging economies and developing countries. The Leaders emphasized that reform of the international financial institutions should be carried out in accordance with G20 commitments, with the objective of achieving an equitable distribution of voting power between developed and developing countries consistent with their participation in the world economy.
14. The Leaders agreed that the Heads and senior leadership of all international institutions should be appointed through an open, transparent and merit-based process beginning with the selection of the next President of the World Bank in 2012. The Leaders underscored the importance of strictly adhering to the commitments already agreed in other fora, such as in the G20, including the development agenda.
Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
15. Recalling the interdependence between security and development, the leaders reiterated their view that peacekeeping operations have a contribution to make in early peacebuilding activities and in providing an environment conducive to the implementation of development strategies, as a means to bring immediate peace dividends to afflicted areas and to contribute to a cooperative atmosphere for UN missions. The leaders noted that when considering the deployment of a mission or in evaluating and renewing the mandate of current missions, the UN Security Council should work in close cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission, with a view to developing a stronger synergy between the two organs.
Global Financial and Economic Crisis
16. The Leaders expressed concern at the ongoing deterioration of the global economic scenario, which presents particular challenges for the economic policy and growth prospects of developing and low-income countries. Downside risks have increased substantially in recent weeks. They stressed the importance of the implementation of a credible plan of macro-economic and financial policies and structural reforms by the Eurozone countries, as a necessary step to prevent further negative shocks to the world economy. They also highlighted the importance of complementary measures by other key developed economies to boost recovery and help the global economy as a whole. They emphasized that domestic policy responses and structural reforms alone remain insufficient to restore growth in many developed and developing countries.
17. The Leaders emphasised the need to increase policy coordination amongst G20 nations, with a view to avert a new recession and to promote a robust recovery in order to ensure strong, sustainable and balanced growth of the global economy in the medium term. This requires carefully calibrated fiscal consolidation in countries with high debt levels and measures to strengthen domestic demand in countries with large surpluses. The Leaders believe that Brazil, India and South Africa are doing their part to promote growth while containing inflationary pressures and ensuring fiscal discipline.
18. The Leaders stressed the importance of implementing the current international commitments of financial regulatory reform, with a view to improving oversight and supervision, towards a more resilient financial system. They also renewed their commitment to the timely implementation of the Basel III agreement.
19. The Leaders emphasized the importance of a more stable and resilient International Monetary System and coherent management of capital flows. They highlighted the special responsibility of reserve currency issuers in the field, in the sense that their policies can have a disproportionate impact on global liquidity and capital flows.
The Social Dimensions of Global Governance
20. The Leaders reaffirmed that people must come first and should participate in the formulation and implementation of public policies, allowing for fair, equitable and sustainable development. They stressed the need to strengthen social policies and to fight poverty, unemployment and hunger. They considered this a relevant priority in the context of an increasingly globalized world, as well as in the restructuring the international financial architecture, which directly affects the welfare of people, particularly of older persons, the youth, the family and persons with disabilities. They reaffirmed their commitment to the implementation of the MDGs. They highlighted the role of the IBSA Facility for the Alleviation of Hunger and Poverty in the implementation of South-South cooperation projects.
Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
21. The Leaders noted that 2015 remains a fundamental target date, by which MDGs must be met. The leaders reaffirmed that with just four years to go for the target year, global efforts for attaining the MDGs by 2015 must see accelerated action. In this regard they called upon developed countries to urgently meet their ODA commitments and to take steps to strengthen global partnership as envisaged in MDG 8 including technology transfer. They further noted that the tepid pace of recovery of the global economy must not lead to lowering of ambition on the MDGs. The Leaders reaffirmed their efforts to strengthening the global partnership for development, but reiterate the necessity of the expeditious delivery of commitments already made by developed countries in the context of the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development.
22. The Leaders acknowledged the centrality of the objectives and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, and its pursuit for the advancement of the agenda for sustainable development. In this regard, the United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the Millennium Summit on 08 September 2000, which reaffirms the objective of making the Right to Development a reality for everyone, remains complementary to the overall spirit of the Charter of the United Nations.
23. The Leaders acknowledged that the successful achievement of the MDGs; as encapsulated in the Millennium Declaration, the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document and 2010 High-Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly; requires strong political will and commitment; adequate funding at the national, regional and international levels; and strengthened international cooperation.
24. The Leaders noted that Sub-Saharan Africa faces peculiar challenges, with respect toward the achievement of the MDGs and has seen less improvement than other developing regions of the world. The African situation remains highly worrisome, particularly in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) who are faced with severe poverty and underdevelopment. There is therefore an imperative need for enhanced international cooperation and solidarity, especially under MDG 8, in order to ensure results.
International Trade (WTO DDR)
25. The Doha Development Round negotiations were launched on the basis of a mandate that sought to put the interests of developing countries at the centre of the work programme. The current impasse in the negotiations is therefore a source of serious concern. The distortions caused by the high levels of protection and subsidies in agriculture in the developed countries continue to undermine the development prospect of many developing countries, especially the least developed countries.
26. The Leaders reiterated their view that the demands of the current negotiations in the Doha Development Round reflect an imbalance in the sense that there is too much accommodation of the sensitivities of developed countries in agriculture, alongside unjust demands on developing countries to open their markets in the services and industrial sectors. The Leaders expressed concern at initiatives, such as a standstill on tariffs that remove WTO consistent policy space previously negotiated by developing countries. Developmental agenda remains central to the Doha Round.
27. To overcome the current impasse and to bring the Round to a successful conclusion, the Leaders reiterated the need to re-affirm the integrity of the mandate that launched the Round, and to build on the convergence already achieved. The Leaders urged the members of the WTO to reach an agreement on measures of interest to LDCs such as DFQF, Cotton, and services waiver and not to make it conditional to reaching an agreement on market access issues.”
28. The Leaders of India and South Africa pledged their support for Brazil’s hosting of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro (“Rio+20 Summit”) to secure renewed political commitment to sustainable development; to assess progress towards internationally agreed commitments on sustainable development and to address new and emerging challenges. The Leaders acknowledged the relevance of the main themes for the Summit namely the Green Economy in the context of Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development and the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development in implementing the Sustainable Development agenda. The Leaders recognised that this conference represents a key opportunity for the international community to examine and reinforce long term commitments established since the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro and the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg.
29. The Leaders agreed that Rio+20 should renew political commitment to accelerate the implementation of the sustainable development agenda as defined by the Rio Principles and taken forward through the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPoI) in pursuit of global sustainable development. Recognising that the green economy is a means to sustainable development and poverty eradication, the Leaders stressed the significance of this conference in addressing the emerging sustainable development challenges associated with the multiple global issues such as food price volatility and food security, energy scarcity and energy access, unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, challenges of rapid urbanization, land degradation and climate change. Therefore, they stressed that there is no “one-size-fits-all” strategy for sustainable development and that the conference should reinvigorate political commitment towards the implementation of the global sustainable development agenda and work towards assisting developing countries through additional and new financing, technology transfer and capacity building in their efforts to achieve sustainable development and poverty eradication. Furthermore, the Leaders emphasised the importance of reaching an agreement on an effective multilateral institutional framework to coordinate, support and enable sustainable development efforts by the international community and relevant stakeholders in a coherent and integrated manner.
30. South Africa as the host of the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 7th Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties (CMP7) to the Kyoto Protocol, which will be taking place in Durban from 28 November to 9 December 2011, appreciates the support of India and Brazil towards a successful outcome in Durban. The outcome of Durban should be comprehensive, balanced and ambitious, within the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and in accordance with the provisions and principles of the Convention, in particular the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
31. The Leaders recalled the two-track Bali Road Map decisions and that the Durban Climate Change Conference is the last opportunity to reach an agreement before the end of the 1st commitment period for developed country mitigation commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. They therefore, called for an agreement on the 2nd commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol as well as the early operationalisation of all the institutions agreed to at COP16/CMP6 in Cancun last year, the Adaptation Committee; the Technology Executive Committee, the Technology Centre and Network; the Standing Committee on Finance and the Green Climate Fund, which must provide significant means of implementation for immediate action to tackle climate change. In this regard, an appropriate assessment of the Green Climate Fund should be undertaken during COP17/CMP7, in order to ensure its adequate structure, with a view to timely disbursements to developing countries. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that accounting of finance by all developed countries is consistent, complete, comparable, transparent and accurate, and should include detailed and comprehensive information on fast start financial flows provided by developed countries.
32. The Leaders emphasised the centrality of adaptation and means of implementation as part of a balanced and comprehensive outcome towards the completion of the Bali Road Map. In addition, it is recognised that the extent to which developing countries can implement their actions is dependent on the extent to which developed countries fulfill their commitment to provide sufficient financing, technological and capacity building support to enable both mitigation and adaptation action.
33. The Leaders, also as members of the Group of Like-Minded Mega-diverse Countriesappreciated the initiative of India to host in October 2012, the eleventh Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (COP11 of CBD) and the sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties (COP/MOP 6) to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. COP11 of CBD will consider among other, the status of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits arising from their Utilization, the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 and its progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the agreed process to adopt indicators and targets for the Resource Mobilization Strategy.
Global Food Security
34. The Leaders expressed their concern about the continuing challenges that developing countries are facing regarding food and nutritional security, such as negative consequences of food inflation and food price volatility. They also expressed concern at how the rising cost of inputs may have regressive impacts on agriculture production and highlighted the need to ensure an increase in agricultural production and productivity, and regulation of commodity markets to meet a growing demand. Regarding the ongoing famine in the Horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, the Leaders renewed their appeal for countries to deliver on commitments made to provide funding to address issues of food and nutrition security, especially in support of domestic and regional programmes, where they exist.
35. It remains imperative that international collaboration improves to ensure that agricultural productivity be augmented, together with an increase in emergency aid, where needed. The Leaders emphasised the need to support small scale and subsistence agriculture and greater market access for their products. Simultaneously, the need for increased sharing of intellectual property with developing countries that could increase resilience in addressing agricultural development and sufficient nutritional feeding remains critical.
36. The Leaders expressed their support for the UN food based institutions in Rome, and other regional organisations that could increase the capacity of developing countries to deal with the issues of increased agricultural production, food security and nutritional feeding to ensure that they eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and attain the Millennium Development Goal 1. In this regard the Leaders welcomed the election of Dr JosèGraziano da Silva of Brazil as the first Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organisation from the Latin America region The Leaders expressed optimism that under the able leadership of Dr Silva, FAO would continue to grow in strength, particularly looking at its regional programmes, when addressing the specific problems of agriculture development and food security.
37. The Leaders undertook to continue to advance the agreed principles underlying South-South Cooperation. The Leaders recalled that South-South cooperation is a common endeavour of peoples and countries of the South, a partnership among equals, and must be guided by the principles of respect for national sovereignty, national ownership and independence, equality, non-conditionality, non-interference in domestic affairs and mutual benefit.
38. The Leaders affirmed that South-South cooperation is complementary to, and not a substitute for, North-South Cooperation.It encompasses all the aspects of international relations beyond the traditional economic and technical areas. South-South Cooperation is an ongoing process which helps developing countries to confront the common challenges they face in successfully promoting their own sustainable development, including through enhancing the capacities of the arrangements and the institutions that promote such cooperation. In this context, the Leaders reaffirmed the importance of South-South Cooperation being implemented jointly through the IBSA Trust Fund.
39. The Leaders expressed the imperative need for the international community to recognise and reaffirm the centrality of the Human Rights Council. The Leaders welcomed the recently concluded Outcome of the review of the status, functioning and working methods of the United Nations Human Rights Council and in this regard reiterated their commitment to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language or religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. The Leaders recognized that development, peace and security and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing.
40. The Leaders recalled the political declaration signed by Head of States and Government on World Conference Against Racism, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR) + 10, held in New York, on 22 September 2011, and reaffirmed their commitment to implement the provisions of the outcomes of WCAR and called on all states to commit to the full and effective implementation of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action as the most instructive United Nations document on the global efforts for the eradication of the scourges of racism and related intolerance.
41. The Leaders expressed the need for IBSA countries to continue to explore mechanisms to further deepen cooperation in international human rights bodies by developing common initiatives aimed at the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. They also reiterated their commitment to strengthening technical assistance and capacity building for the promotion and protection on human rights, based on their respective experiences and good practices.
Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
42. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the goal of the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons within a specified timeframe, in a comprehensive, universal, non-discriminatory, verifiable and irreversible manner. They also renewed their support for efforts related to the disarmament and non-proliferation of other weapons of mass destruction, with a view to expediting their elimination. Brazil and South Africa welcomed India’s engagement with, and interest in, participation in the relevant international multilateral export control regimes and utilization of their guidelines.
43. The Leaders condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, as it constitutes one of the most serious to international peace and security.
44. The Leaders regretted and condemned the recent attacks in India that resulted in loss of lives. The Leaders of Brazil and South Africa offered condolences to the government and people of India. The Leaders in the same vein reiterated their strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and encouraged cooperation among States and regional organizations in the fight against terrorism. In this regard they emphasized the urgent need to finalize the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) and called upon all UN member-States to cooperate in resolving outstanding issues with the objective of an expeditious conclusion of negotiations and adoption of this Convention. They reaffirmed the central role of the UN in coordinating the international action against terrorism within the framework of the UN Charter and in accordance with the international law.
Transnational Organised Crime
45. The Leaders welcomed the UNGA resolution A/RES/65/230 on the Twelfth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice which endorsed the Salvador Declaration on Comprehensive Strategies for Global Challenges: Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Systems and Their Development in a Changing World.
The Leaders also acknowledged that organised crime in all its manifestations is an anathema that poses a great threat to social, economic and moral fiber of societies and has serious potential to undermine good governance. Organised crime further weakens efforts towards poverty eradication and sustainable development, and the way forward should be regional and international cooperation. The Leaders recognized that women, along with children, are the main victims of human trafficking, particularly for forced labor and sexual exploitation. The Leaders emphasized the need to coordinate policies among countries and to create effective channels to combat this crime.
46. The Leaders welcomed the adoption of the 2010 United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons which will contribute to the promotion and protection of the rights of women and children, as well as enhance cooperation and better coordination of efforts in fighting trafficking in persons.
47. The Leaders invited Governments to take into consideration the Salvador Declaration when formulating legislation and policy directives and to make all efforts where appropriate to implement the principles contained therein, taking into account the economic, social, legal and cultural specificities of their respective States.
48. The Leaders called on Member States of IBSA to collaborate in their fight against the scourge of transnational corganised crime, including cooperation in the area of extradition, mutual legal assistance and criminal justice.
Intellectual Property Rights
49. The Leaders emphasized the need for an equitable and balanced international system of rules governing intellectual property, allowing among others, for the protection of indigenous knowledge systems against abuse and for preventing the misappropriation of genetic resources, and associated traditional knowledge.
50. They emphasized, in this context, the need for a balanced international intellectual property system that contextualizes Intellectual Property Rights in the larger framework of socio-economic development and views them, not as ends in themselves, but as a means of promoting innovation, growth and development in all countries through calibrated norm-setting, protection and enforcement, while facilitating the effective transfer of technology. To this end, they called for the full implementation of the Development Agenda of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in all areas of its work. In this context, they welcomed the progress being made towards evolving legally-binding international instrument(s) in WIPO for the effective protection of Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions and urged early adoption of these instruments within the 2012-‘13 biennium. Reaffirming the important role played by Exceptions, Exclusions and Limitations in bringing the necessary balance between Intellectual Property Rights and public interest, the Leaders took positive note of the ongoing initiatives in WIPO. The leaders noted with appreciation that IBSA countries were already co-coordinating their positions on a number of issues within the framework of the Development Agenda Group (DAG).
51. The Leaders warned against attempts at developing new international rules on enforcement of intellectual property rights outside the multilateral fora that may give free rein to systematic abuses in the protection of rights, the building of barriers against free trade and undermining fundamental civil rights.
52. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to working together towards a people-centered, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society and their agreement to continue to coordinate positions for the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) follow-up mechanisms, as well as in the other fora and organizations related to the Information Society and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
53. The Leaders expressed their satisfaction with the ongoing work in this arena; recognized the role of the Internet as a catalyst for economic and social progress; and emphasized its potential to enhance IBSA’s profile as a key global player. The leaders reaffirmed the IBSA framework agreement for Cooperation on the Information Society adopted on September 13, 2006 and recalled the commitments made in the Geneva Declaration of Principles and the Tunis Agenda with regard to Enhanced Cooperation.
54. The Leaders highlighted the importance of building a wide political coalition at the international level for making the global internet governance regime as multilateral, democratic and transparent as provided by the WSIS. In this context, they reiterated the urgent need to operationalise the process of ‘Enhanced Cooperation’ mandated by the Tunis Agenda and recalled, with satisfaction, the fruitful coordination amongst IBSA countries in the deliberations on ‘Enhanced Cooperation’ in the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) and in the UN Secretary-General’s Open Consultations held in December 2010. The leaders took note of the recommendations of the IBSA Workshop on Global Internet Governance convened in Rio de Janeiro on 1-2 September 2011 and resolved to jointly undertake necessary follow-up action.
55. The Leaders emphasized Internet Governance as a key strategic area that requires close collaboration and concrete action. In this context, it recommended the establishment of an IBSA Internet Governance and Development Observatory that should be tasked to monitor developments on global Internet Governance and provide regular updates and analyses from the perspective of developing countries.
56. The Leaders acknowledged that each State has a right to define its national energy policy in accordance with its national circumstances and requirements and its relevant international obligations. They also recognized that a diverse portfolio of energy sources will be needed in future to sustain energy and electricity resources in all regions of the world. In this regard, the availability of energy and access to it are vital to human development, and they recognized that renewable energy, as well as nuclear power play an important role in the energy mix of countries and also contributes to mitigate the risk of global climate change. The Leaders remain convinced of the importance of encouraging joint research and studies to promote cooperation and information exchange in the field of development of sustainable and alternative energy.
57. The Leaders expressed their conviction that universal access to healthcare and affordable medicines is an indispensible step to achieve the ambitious goals adopted by the international community in the fight against communicable and non communicable diseases, as set forth by the Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS of 2011 and by the Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable diseases of 2011.
58. Furthermore, the Leaders recognized that the effective impact of intellectual property on health, access to drugs and prices can best be tackled by enabling developing nations to scale up production of generic medicines through the full use of the flexibilities provided by the TRIPS agreement, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health, and, with the support of the World Health Organization, by the Global Strategy on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property, (WHO).
59. The Leaders welcomed the convening of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, to be held from the 19th to the 21st of October 2011, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In this context, the leaders expressed the hope that the – Conference will be able to agree a common agenda for the implementation of a social determinants of health approach to reduce health inequities.
60. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women and the Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals, as well as important contributions made by IBSA in achieving women’s empowerment and gender equality.
61. The Leaders welcomed the establishment of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) in leading, coordinating and promoting the accountability of the United Nations system in its work on gender equality and the empowerment of women, as established under General Assembly resolution 64/289. The Leaders called for adequate funding of the budget of UN Women to enable it to promptly and effectively plan and carry out its mandate.
62. The Leaders recognised with concern that the situation of women, children and persons with disabilities have been negatively impacted by the world financial and economic crisis, and reaffirmed that eradicating poverty continues to be the greatest global challenge facing the world today, recognizing its impact beyond the socio economic context.
63. The Leaders further recognised with concern that Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on ending maternal and child mortality will not be achieved by 2015. The Leaders also recognized that the lack of economic empowerment and independence has increased women’s vulnerability to a range of negative consequences, involving the risk of contracting HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and other poverty related diseases. In this regard, the Leaders stressed the importance of ensuring women’s right to the highest attainable standards of health and their access to affordable and adequate health care services, including sexual, reproductive and maternal health care and lifesaving obstetric care. The Leaders called for the strengthening of national health and social infrastructures to reinforce measures to promote women’s access to public health and to address shortages of human resources for health.
64. The Leaders reaffirmed the full representation and full and equal participation of women in political, social and economic decision making as an essential condition for gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls as a critical factor in the eradication of poverty.
65. The Leaders recognised the significant role women play in economic development and in the eradication of poverty and stressed the need to ensure women’s and girls’ full and equal access to all levels of quality education and training and the promotion of women’s equal access to full employment and decent work.
66. The Leaders emphasised the need to create an enabling environment for improving the situation of rural women and ensuring their full participation in the development, implementation and follow-up of socio-economic policies and poverty eradication strategies.
67. The Leaders emphasised the importance of enhanced cooperation and partnership between their countries as an effective way of working towards women empowerment and gender equality and achieving sustainable development.
68. The Leaders expressed deep concern that malnutrition and preventable diseases continue to be major obstacles to the realization of rights in early childhood, in particular the right to life and access to health and food, and to the ability of the child to develop, and also recognizes the need to reduce child mortality and ensure comprehensive child development.
69. The Leaders reaffirmed that the eradication of poverty is essential to the achievement of all the Millennium Development Goals and to the full realization of the rights of all children, including in early childhood. The Leaders emphasized that the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its two Optional Protocols and relevant human rights instruments constitutes the standard in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child.
70. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to eliminate the worst forms of child labour and took note of the ILO Road Map for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour by 2016 and welcomed the convening of the Third Global Conference Against Child Labour to take place in Brazil in 2013.
Persons with Disabilities
71. The Leaders noted that large number of persons with disabilities live in developing countries, and recognized the importance of international cooperation and its promotion in support of national efforts to mainstream persons with disability in the development agenda, in particular for developing countries.
72. The Leaders further noted with concern that the lack of adequate data and information on disability and the situation of persons with disabilities at the national level presents an obstacle to achieving development planning and implementation that is inclusive of persons with disabilities.
73. The Leaders affirmed that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides an opportunity to strengthen the policies related to the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals, thereby contributing to the realization of a “society for all” in the 21st Century.
74. The Leaders welcomed the convening of the High Level Meeting (HLM) on Youth held at the UN Headquarters in New York from 25- 26 July 2011to address the theme: “Youth: Dialogue and Understanding” and the resultant outcome document. Bearing in mind the global economic crisis, the Leaders recognized the importance of promoting access to decent work, culture, education and participation in the decision-making processes. The Leaders expressed concern at the high levels of unemployment among youth worldwide and stressed the need to develop a plan of action aimed at effectively addressing youth unemployment.
AU / NEPAD
75. The Leaders welcomed the fact that the full integration of the NEPAD Agency into the structures of the AU has been completed and in this way augments the fact that NEPAD remains the AU’s flagship socio-economic programme. The Leaders further welcomed the fact that Africa’s most important partners are increasingly aligning their programmatic support as well as their projects with NEPAD principles and policies, and wit the decisions taken by NEPAD and AU structures.
76. IBSA Leaders extended their congratulations on the 10 year anniversary of NEPAD, and acknowledge that NEPAD has played an immense role in mobilizing the African continent to take the lead in the determination of its destiny. The Leaders noted that NEPAD, through the commitment of African leaders, and with the support of Africa’s key partners, including IBSA, has an important role to play in developing the potential of Africa as a potential new global growth pole.
77. The Leaders welcomed the progress made by the eight NEPAD Champion states in their endeavours to implement the selected priority cross-border projects that will further integrate the regions of African and will contribute to improving intra-African trade.
78. The Leaders welcomed the decision of the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee (HSGOC) that the African private sector needs to be more involved in NEPAD projects and programmes and that African countries should increase the use of their domestic resources for infrastructure and other projects. The envisaged greater involvement by the African public sector and the African private sector will also serve the purpose of strengthening the already strong links with Africa’s bilateral and multilateral partners.
79. The Leaders recognised the positive contribution that India and Brazil play in support of the AU in conjunction with NEPAD. They welcomed the successful conclusion of the 2nd India-Africa Forum Summit in Addis Ababa in May 2011. They also looked forward to the South America-Africa Summit to take place in Malabo in 2012. The deep-rooted historical relationship that Brazil and India have with Africa has developed into a modern example of South-South Cooperation.
80. The Leaders reiterated their governments’ attachment to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Libya. They underlined the urgency of ceasing hostilities, consolidating public security and fully restoring basic services throughout the country. The Leaders called on those concerned to reach an agreement on an inclusive transitional government as soon as possible with a view to promoting national unity, reconciliation, democracy and reconstruction. The Leaders underlined the central role of the United Nations in post-conflict Libya and the contribution of the African Union can offer in this process. The Leaders expressed IBSA’s willingness to help the Libyan people rebuild their institutions and infrastructure.
Arab-Israel Peace Process
81. The Leaders welcomed the Palestinian request for full membership at the United Nations, which they support as a key step towards the full realization of the two-state solution and expect a positive response by UNSC to the Palestinian request. The Leaders called for the urgent resumption of effective and result-oriented negotiations aimed at giving birth to a sovereign, democratic, independent, united and viable Palestinian State, with East Jerusalem as its capital, coexisting peacefully alongside Israel, within secure borders. They called for the monitoring of the Quartet’s activities by the UNSC. The Leaders called for an immediate freeze in all settlement activity in the occupied Palestinian Territories and East Jerusalem and lifting the siege against Gaza. The Leaders reflected on the work of the Quartet as regards to finding a solution to the Palestinian question. They urged the Quartet to report to the UNSC on a regular basis on progress made, or lack thereof.
82. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Syria. They expressed their grave concern at the current situation in Syria and condemned the persistent violence. They expressed their belief that the only solution to the current crisis is through a Syrian–led all inclusive, transparent, peaceful political process aimed at effectively addressing the legitimate aspirations and concerns of the population and at protecting unarmed civilians. The leaders welcomed IBSA’s joint initiatives on Syria. They further called for an immediate end to violence and, respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. The Leaders decided to consider the possibility of undertaking a visit to Syria by an IBSA delegation in an effort to expedite the implementation of reforms promised by the Syrian Government.
83. The Leaders recognized the territorial sovereignty and integrity of Sri Lanka and encouraged the Government of Sri Lanka to implement a fully inclusive political settlement in Sri Lanka, which will be best achieved through broad consultation and dialogue amongst all the peoples of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, the Leaders acknowledged the priority of the timely completion of effective domestic accountability processes, i.e. the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), before any consideration is given to alternative processes.
84. The Leaders emphasized the need for the international community to maintain its commitment to render assistance to the Government and people of Afghanistan in ensuring security and development, whose interdependence is key to stability and sustainable peace. The only way to lasting peace is through dialogue. The Leaders are of the view that without good governance and a long-term commitment to support economic development; security gains will not be sustainable.
85. The Leaders expressed support for a democratic, pluralistic and stable Afghanistan. The Leaders acknowledged the need for continued international assistance to further enable the Afghan National Security Forces to guarantee Afghanistan’s sovereignty, independence and stability. International cooperation is also needed to further strengthen Afghanistan’s capacity to deliver public goods to its citizens. The Leaders also expressed support for the principle of national ownership and leadership in the transition processes.
86. The Leaders also voiced their firm support to the government of Afghanistan to lead efforts to advance the process of reconciliation and reintegration, which should be inclusive and transparent, and where those reintegrated renounce violence, eschew links with all terrorist groups and fully respect the National Constitution.
Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan
87. The Leaders welcomed the new state of the Republic of South Sudan and congratulated the efforts and commitment made by Sudan and South Sudan which led to the conclusion of the processes of the creation of the new state. The Leaders stressed the continued need for all parties to fully respect the 2005 CPA and the resolution of the outstanding issues in a constructive manner.
88. The Leaders expressed continued support for both Sudan and South Sudan and indicated that they will continue to support AU efforts regarding peace between the two countries as well as the post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts. They also emphasized the importance of close cooperation between both countries and the African Union High Level Implementation Panel for Sudan (AUHIP), led by former South African President Thabo Mbeki and pledged continued support for its work.
89. The Leaders welcomed the progress made in the security situation in Mogadishu, while recognizing the persistence of serious challenges, as demonstrated by the terrorist attack that occurred in 4 October, which the Leaders strongly condemned. They called upon all Somali parties to renounce violence and engage in dialogue and reconciliation.
90. The Leaders expressed their deep concern about the situation in the Horn of Africa, which has led to a severe humanitarian crisis.
91. The Leaders welcomed the adoption of the Roadmap during the first Consultative Meeting on Ending the Transition in Somalia, held in Mogadishu, on September 5-6, 2011 and expressed the hope that this will lead to the adoption of a new constitution and general elections soon thereafter. The Leaders also welcomed the efforts by the international community to alleviate the plight of the internal displaced and Somali refugees in neighbouring countries. The Leaders also called upon the international community to redouble its efforts to address the problems of piracy and hostage-taking off the coast of Somalia in a comprehensive manner.
92. The Leaders welcomed the significant progress made by the Government of Guinea Bissau towards sound economic management, stability and peace consolidation. They stressed the need for the international community to support such progress by fully resuming its cooperation with the country, in particular with regard to security sector reform and social and economic development.
93. The Leaders reiterated their commitment to the people and the Government of Haiti. They highlighted the positive efforts from the Executive and Legislative powers in Haiti resulting in the ratification of the Prime Minister, which will enable the implementation of the government program and the ensuing strengthening of recovery and reconstruction efforts. They reaffirmed their full support for the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), recognizing that it continues to play a vital role in the maintenance of security and stability in Haiti. The importance of MINUSTAH’s support for the strengthening of the Haitian State and Haiti’s sustainable development was also underlined.
IBSA Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation (IBSA Fund)
94. The Leaders highlighted the importance of the IBSA Fund as an instrument to alleviate poverty and hunger and a useful vehicle for meaningful South-South cooperation. The Leaders reiterated their commitment to the various new projects that have been approved and are being implemented under auspices of the IBSA Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation (IBSA Trust Fund), i.e. Palestine, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Timor Leste, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Vietnam, Sudan and South Sudan.
Sectoral cooperation and People-to-People For a
95. The Leaders noted that IBSA also provides for substantial cross-sector cooperation and promotion of people-to-people cooperation. The Leaders welcomed the collaboration among within the working groups on Agriculture, Environment & Climate Change, Culture, Defense, Education, Energy, Health, Human Settlements, Information Society, Public Administration, Revenue Administration, Science & Technology, Social Development, Tourism, Trade & Investment, and Transport. Their activities have already resulted in the signing of a number of Memoranda of Understanding the implementation of which should be prioritised to ensure concrete deliverables on the projects identified for co-operation.
96. The Leaders noted with appreciation the organisation and the outcome of the IBSA People-to-People For a meetings, i.e. Academic, Business Council, Editors, Intergovernmental Relations and Local Government, Tri Nations Summit on Small Business, and Women.
97. The Leaders welcomed the signing of the MoU on Mutual Cooperation among the Rio Branco Institute of the Ministry of External Relations of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Foreign Service Institute of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India and the Diplomatic Academy of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of South Africa.
IBSA Satellite Project
98. Brazil and South Africa welcomed India’s decision conveyed at the Working Group on Science and Technology meeting that India will host the IBSA Satellite Technical Meeting In Bengaluru to discuss (i) modalities of cooperation in space weather, earth observation and micro satellite; and (ii) translating the IBSA Satellite concept into action.
99. As the IBSA Dialogue Forum approaches its first decade of existence, and prepares to take on new challenges, the Leaders instructed the Ministers to conduct a review of the work methods of the IBSA sectoral cooperation mechanisms and the IBSA Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation.
100. The month of October marks the celebration of various festivities and auspicious days, including Diwali (the celebration of light) in India. The Leaders wished the Government and the people of India well during these celebrations.
101. The Leaders expressed their satisfaction with the decision by the Minister of External Affairs of India, H.E. Mr S.M. Krishna, the Minister of External Relations of Brazil, H.E. Antonio de Aguiar Patriota and the Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, H.E. Maite Nkoana-Mashabane to convene the 8th Meeting of the Trilateral Commission to be hosted by South Africa, in the first half of 2012.
102. The Leaders welcomed the offer by India to host the 6th IBSA Summit in 2013 on a date to be set through the diplomatic channels.