Aquecimento Global

In order to fight, mitigate as well as reduce the climate change phenomena caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the international community has agreed upon two main international instruments: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997.

Em 1992, na cúpula da Terra no Rio, que visava enfrentar os riscos do aquecimento global, na época conhecido como efeito estufa, os estados pela primeira vez se comprometeram a estabilizar suas emissões de gazes nocivos. Duas posições se opuseam: Os europeus queriam que uma taxa fosse imposta enquanto que os EUA preferiam um controle quantitativo. Em 1997, a assinatura do protocolo de Kyoto traduzia o controle quantitativo, juridicamente vinculante, Para entrar em vogor, o contrato deveria ter pelo menos 55 países, ou 55% das emissões mundiais, o que significa que com a saída dos EUA em 2001, foi necessário esperar a ratificação da Russia em 2004 para o tratado entrar em vigor.

Os compromissos subscritos pelos signatarios são ambiciosos. Eles aceitaram reduzir 5,5% suas emissões de gaz entre 2008 e 2012 para oltar ao patamar de 1990. O protocolo de kyoto conta com 3 mecanismos de flexibilidade.
– o mercado de créditos de carbono
– O mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo -> permite a criação de novos créditos de carbono desenvolvendo projetos de redução da emissão de gases em países que não do anexo I.
– Implementação Conjunta -> permite créditos project-specific que serão convertidos em créditos existentes nos países do anexo I.

Top 10 emissores:
1. China1 – 17%, 5.8
2. United States ® – 16%, 24.1
3. European Union-27 ® – 11%, 10.6
4. Indonesia2 – 6%, 12.9
5. India – 5%, 2.1
6. Russia ® – 5%, 14.9
7. Brazil – 4%, 10.0
8. Japan ® – 3%, 10.6
9. Canada ® – 2%, 23.2
10. Mexico – 2%, 6.4

Annex I countries

There are 40 Annex I countries and the European Union is also a member. These countries are classified as industrialized countries and countries in transition:

Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America
[edit] Annex II countries

There are 23 Annex II countries and the European Union. Turkey was removed from the Annex II list in 2001 at its request to recognize its economy as a transition economy. These countries are classified as developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries:

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America

Cada estado membro fixa os seus objetivos.

A Austrália é o maior emissor per capta.

UNFCCC adopts a principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” The parties agreed that:

1. the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases originated in developed countries;
2. per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low;
3. the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet social and development needs.[15]

Posições dos Governos:
Anexo I

On the change of government following the election in November 2007, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the ratification immediately after assuming office on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change;[27][28] it took effect in March, 2008.[29] According the Australian government, Australia should meet its Kyoto target (IEA, 2005, p. 56;[30] DCCEE, 2010).[31]
[edit] Canada
See also: Canada and the Kyoto Protocol

On 17 December 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005 (IEA, 2004, p. 52).[32] In the assessment of NRTEE (2008), “Canada is not pursuing a policy objective of meeting the Kyoto Protocol emissions reductions targets. […] [The] projected emissions profile described in the 2008 [government plan] would leave Canada in non-compliance with the Kyoto Protocol.”[33]
[edit] Europe
[edit] European Union
See also: Energy policy of the European Union

On 31 May 2002, all fifteen then-members of the European Union deposited the relevant ratification paperwork at the UN. All but one EU Member State (Austria) anticipate that they will meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (EEA, 2009, pp. 11-12).[34]
[edit] Norway

Between 1990 and 2007, Norway’s greenhouse gas emissions increased by 12%.[35] As well as directly reducing their own greenhouse gas emissions, Norway’s idea for carbon neutrality is to finance reforestation in China, a legal provision of the Kyoto protocol.
[edit] Japan

Japan’s emission reduction commitment under Kyoto is to reduce emissions by 6% on 1990 levels (Stern, 2007, p. 456).[36] Japan had a national objective to increase its share of electricity from renewable sources to 20% by 2010.
[edit] Russia
See also: Energy policy of Russia

Vladimir Putin approved the treaty on 4 November 2004, and Russia officially notified the United Nations of its ratification on 18 November 2004. The issue of Russian ratification was particularly closely watched in the international community, as the accord was brought into force 90 days after Russian ratification (16 February 2005).

The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels. Since 1990, the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed, as have their greenhouse gas emissions. Because of this, Russia should have no problem meeting its commitments under Kyoto, as its current emission levels are substantially below its limitations.
[edit] United States
See also: Energy policy of the United States

The United States (U.S.), although a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, has neither ratified nor withdrawn from the Protocol. The signature alone is merely symbolic, as the Kyoto Protocol is non-binding on the United States unless ratified.

The US has a federal objective to reduce its GHG intensity level by 18% on 2002 levels by 2012 (Stern, 2007, p. 456).[36] States have their own policies to cut emissions, including California, and states in the North-East and mid-Atlantic.

The North-East and Mid-Atlantic States are adhering to the new RGGI (Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative) policy.

Não Anexo I


Brazil has a national objective to increase the share of alternative renewable energy sources (biomass, wind and small hydropower) to 10% by 2030. It also has programmes to protect public forests from deforestation (Stern, 2007, p. 456).[36]
[edit] People’s Republic of China

A report by the Carbon Trust (2009) assessed the use of the CDM in China.[14] The CDM has been used to finance projects in China for renewable energy and HFC-23 reductions (HFC’s are powerful greenhouse gases). For renewables, the CDM was judged to have helped to stimulate wind and small hydro power projects. Critics have argued that these policies would generally have taken place without the CDM (Carbon Trust, 2009, p. 56).

The Chinese 11th Five Year Plan has a number of stringent national objectives to reduce emissions, one of which is a 20% reduction in energy intensity of GDP, from 2005 to 2010 (Stern, 2007, p. 456).[36] According to World Bank (2010, p. 192), this target, if met, will reduce annual CO2 emissions by 1.5 billion tons in 2010. This is the most aggressive emission reduction target in the world, and is five times larger than the EU’s Kyoto emission reduction commitment, and eight times larger than California’s target.[13]
[edit] India
See also: Energy policy of India

India signed and ratified the Protocol in August, 2002. Since India is exempted from the framework of the treaty, it is expected to gain from the protocol in terms of transfer of technology and related foreign investments.

Policies in India related to greenhouse gas emissions have included the 11th Five Year Plan, that contains mandatory and voluntary measures to increase efficiency in power generation and distribution. Other measures include increased use of nuclear power and renewable energy (Stern, 2007, p. 456).[36]
[edit] Pakistan

On 11 January 2005, Pakistan submitted its instruments of accession to the Kyoto Protocol. In February, 2006, the national CDM operational strategy was approved, and on 27 April 2006, the first CDM project was approved by DNA. It was reduction of large N2O from nitric acid production (investor: Mitsubishi, Japan), estimating 1 million CERs annually. In November, 2006, the first CDM project was registered with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).


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